tei:title “contains the title of a work, whether article, book, journal, or series, including any alternative titles or subtitles” (http://www.tei-c.org/P4X/ref-TITLE.html).

Subclasses and attributes

The specific bibliographic level or class of title is indicated by @level. Allowable values are:

a : analytic title (article, poem, or other item published as part of a larger item)
m : monographic title (book, collection, or other item published as a
    distinct item, including single volumes of multi-volume works)
j : journal title
s : series title
u : title of unpublished material (including theses and dissertations unless
    published by a commercial press)



In print sources, titles are displyed differently depending on the bibliographic level involved:

level=”a” or level=”u” 
Analytic and unpublished titles are commonly displayed in roman type with (humanities) or without (natural sciences) quotation marks.
level=”m” or level=”j” 
Monographic and journal titles are commonly displayed in print sources using italic type.
Series titles are commonly displayed in roman or italic type.


If you are attempting to display a TEI XML document directly in a commercial browser, the following CSS fragments can be used to style the element:

Analytic and Unpublished

a. With quotation marks:

title[level="a"], title[level="u"] {
  quotes: '"' '"' "'" "'" '"' '"' "'" "'";

b. Without quotation marks:

title[level="a"], title[level="u"] {


Monographic and Journal

title[level="m"], title[level="j"] {
   font-style: italic;


a. Italic print

title[level="s"] {
   font-style: italic;

b. Roman print:

title[level="s"] {



If you are going to convert your TEI XML to XHTML, the following code will produce results that will work in most browsers:

<xsl:template match="title">
  <xsl:if test="@level='a'">
  <xsl:if test="@level='u'">
  <xsl:if test="@level='m'">
  <xsl:if test="@level='j'">
  <xsl:if test="@level='s'">
</xsl:template match="titl

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